Category Archives: Medical and Health Care

A Brief Note On Hospitals


Hospital is a healthcare institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.  The best-known type of hospital is the General hospital, which typically has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a heart attack. A District hospital typically is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialised hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation , children’s hospitals , seniors’ (geriatric) hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment (see psychiatric hospital) and certain disease categories. The medical facility smaller than a hospital is generally called a Clinic and at last a Teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical students and nurses.

How to Find a Good Hospital

WHEN IN NEED OF MEDICAL care, picking a good hospital is one of the most important choices a savvy consumer can make. And while patients with especially complex cases or rare conditions may need to get care at one of World’s Best Hospitals. Relatively few of the 1.2 billion people admitted to a hospital annually do much in the way of comparison shopping among their local medical centres. Nearly 60 percent of people say they would choose a hospital based on familiarity, whereas only 35 percent would seek out a higher-rated facility. The reality is that not all hospitals or doctors or nurses, for that matter deliver high-quality care. Even the type of treatment that similar patients get can vary from hospital to hospital and region to region. In some parts of the country, for example, heart patients are more likely to receive angioplasty than coronary bypass surgery, while in many places the opposite is true.

The good news is that the “inconsistency [in care] is not a mystery.” By tapping a few readily available resources, patients can make informed and empowering decisions about a good local hospital for the treatment they need.

Any of the following resources could help you make an informed decision if you, a family member, or a friend need to visit a hospital. Using several of these resources is even better than relying on just one. So roll up your shirt sleeves and do your research as if your life depends on it:-

:- Your primary-care physician. Consult this trusted source if a specialist ever tells you that surgery or treatment is necessary, and ask your primary-care doc where he/she recommends you have it done. Primary-care physicians have a good working knowledge of the hospitals in the area, including each institution’s overall reputation and how it stacks up against its local peers for specific procedures and treatments.

:- Your insurance company. Inquire about the quality data they’ve collected on each facility where they would cover your treatment. Most health plans have some information available about the quality of care delivered by different providers. That info can typically be found on the plan’s website or by phone. The data might be limited to the pool of patients plan covers and the doctors and hospitals in the plan’s network, but it’s nevertheless a source of details that can inform your choice.

 :- That friend of a friend who is a nurse. Hospitals are the nation’s second-largest private-sector employer, according to the Hospital Association, so your extended social network may include more hospital employees than you realize. Most people know someone in the local healthcare system. Find that person and chat them up. But realize they provide a narrow view, seeing perhaps only one slice of all the variables that make up a hospital’s level of care.

:- A trusted family member or friend. Bringing someone you trust to an important appointment, or simply going through the hospital-selection process with another person, can be quite powerful. If nothing else, your companion is likely to be more clear-headed than you are when you’re faced with daunting new information about your health. He or she need not be a medical professional.:-

:- Highway billboards touting a hospital’s latest award. They’re hard to miss—and plentiful in many regions of the country. But beware the source. Before you let that billboard or full-page newspaper ad sway your decision, “Can you find information on how [the group giving the award] defines good quality?” The prize may or may not have any real bearing on the quality of care a patient could expect at that hospital.

Who Are Hospital Staffs And Their Roles


The consultant is the most senior doctor in charge of a patient’s care. Unlike other doctors they don’t wear a doctor’s coat so it’s easy to identify them. They are responsible for overseeing diagnosis, care and treatment so lead a team of more junior doctors including registrars. A consultant is always a specialist.


Dieticians are trained in the science of nutrition which they use as a basis to provide practical information about food. Their role is therefore focused on the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of diet and nutrition related health issues.  They do not wear a nurses uniform. Dieticians can work in hospital or community settings.

Physician’s Assistant (Associate)

This role is primarily a technical one providing clinical support to doctors and nurses by undertaking specific clinical tasks.   The role can be called physicians associate or assistant. Physicians’ assistants typically wear scrubs either in the same or a different colour to other medical staff. Their main responsibilities include taking patient histories, analysing test results, and performing examinations. They operate under the supervision of a doctor.

Charge Nurse (Ward Sister)

This role is a clinical management one and deputies for the senior sister. Male and female charge nurses typically wear color coded tunics and trousers. Their tunics have epaulets.  This role has budget and quality improvement responsibilities but is still involved in assessing patients and implementing evidence based care. They are also responsible for the safety of the clinical environment.



Housekeepers coordinate catering, cleaning and maintain equipment. This means they work with other staff to ensure patients have the correct food and that their bed area is tidy and clean. Typically housekeepers were dark trousers and a tunic with a shirt collar which distinguishes them from nursing staff. Housekeepers may also coordinate additional services including laundry.

Divisional Nurse

This is a senior nursing role overseeing a number of wards that form a division.  Typically these nurses wear a matching tunic and trousers typically in colour such as navy blue/blue. Has responsibility for troubleshooting problems that more junior nursing staff can’t deal with. Part of their role is to work with divisional management including a general manager and senior clinical staff.

Healthcare Support Worker

This role supports staff nurses and is sometimes called a nursing assistant. Typically female healthcare support workers wear self-coloured dresses and their male counterparts were self-coloured tunics. Typical tunic or dress colours are white or light blue. Duties may include washing and dressing, bed making and serving meals.

Domestic Assistant

This role has responsibility for ensuring wards are clean and tidy. Typically domestic assistants wear dark trousers and a contrasting tunic. This role may wear the same uniform as a housekeeper.  Domestic assistants are required to clean to a high standard.

Occupational Therapist

An occupational therapist (OP) uses activity to help patients function independently.  Disability can be caused by aging, accidents, psychological or physical illness. Occupational therapists wear comfortable clothing – typically a polo shirt and trousers. The nature of their work requires freedom of movement. OPs can work in hospital or community based settings.


Physiotherapists treat patients who have mobility issues. Typically they wear tunics or polo shirts partnered with trousers.  In hospitals therapists are attached to most, if not all, wards. They have a particular role to play in ICU settings. Whether patients’ physical problems are caused by aging, illness or accidents, it is the physiotherapists’ role to assist wellbeing through movement.

Senior Clinical Nurse

This role is the senior nurse in charge of a group of wards. Their uniform can be similar to a Divisional Nurse’s and can be a tunic and trousers or a dress.  The colour of their uniform /style of dress or tunic will distinguish them from other nurses so is frequently a darker colour with piping. This role has particular responsibility for the clinical care of patients throughout a number of wards.

Senior Sister (Charge Nurse)

The senior sister has responsibility for managing a whole ward and is charged with improving outcomes and experiences for patients, families and carers.  They typically have a responsibility for staffing and ensuring all patients are assessed so professional leadership and line management are integral to the role. The precise responsibilities vary across Trusts. They typically wear a dress or tunic and trousers. Depending on policy, coloured piping may identify the role.

Specialist Nurse

A nurse operating within a distinct medical specialisation typically ward based working with patients who have long term conditions including stroke, dementia, diabetes, chronic heart failure and cancer.  A significant part of their role is helping patients manage their symptoms. Male nurses wear a tunic and trousers and female nurses wear the same although typically a different coloured tunic. Female nurses may also have the option of wearing a dress depending on Trust policy.

Staff Nurse

Staff nurses are responsible for the nursing care patients receive and typically work in teams. They typically wear light coloured dresses or tunics and trousers. As well as having responsibility for patient care they will also have audit and quality responsibilities. Staff nurses facilitate the learning of less experienced staff.

Student Nurse

Student nurses are typically found in teaching hospitals and can either be completing a degree or be an LPN candidate. Student nurses roles vary but the main element is to assist more senior nurses and learning to complete a range of medical procedures to an acceptable standard. They must also develop an understanding of nursing policies. Student nurses’ uniforms tend to be light coloured tunics and black or navy trousers.

Ward Clark

Ward clerks fulfil an administrative role. If in uniform they were tunics or shirts and trousers. Clerks have a wide range of responsibilities including booking patients for appointments, filing and keeping patient records. Clerks also handle general enquiries from patients and family members whether face to face or over the phone.  Ward clerks have responsibility for admissions to their ward.

Hospital Environment

Hospitals are moving away from traditional, clinically oriented design in favor of an environment that is more comforting and familiar to patients.It’s all based on the idea that the perfect hospital environment can not only promote rest and healing, but can also aid in preventing patient falls, hospital-acquired infections, and certain kinds of medical errors. For an idea of how this all comes into play, take a look at this info graphic from the Wall Street Journal, depicting The Hospital Room of the Future.

Hospital Ward Room

Patient-centric design often highlights the role of nurses as frontline caregivers and streamlines interactions between the nurse, patient, and family members. An example is nursing work stations that are strategically located at the entrance to patient rooms, instead of in a centralized location farther away from patients.

A dynamic environment can also emphasize best practices in infection control – for example, by placing sinks and sanitizer stations at the point of use, and using a visual reminder like a light to prompt clinicians to practice good hand hygiene. According to an article in Health Care Design magazine, furnishings can also have a big impact on hospital-acquired infections. In patient-centric and evidence-based design, furniture and surfaces are easy to clean and disinfect. They feature rounded corners, non-textured surfaces, and clean lines that offer pathogens and dust fewer places to hide. Likewise, furnishings can be designed to minimize the likelihood of falls.

A recent article explored the trend of luxury amenities in hospital rooms – high-ticket items that might include private rooms, plush couches, or organic food by a celebrity chef. It included a rather controversial quote by a health economist who believes the demand for a hospital correlates more to its hospitality services than to quality of care. Of course, this point of view is the antithesis of nursing philosophy. The focus of nursing care remains on the health outcomes of the patient, the use of evidence-based practice standards to assure safe and effective patient care, and the provision of an environment conducive to rest and healing.

Yet, there may be good ways to apply the concept of hospitality to health care – by reducing environmental stressors, for example. This is where evidence-based design comes into play: research has shown that sleep is important to both mental and physical health. Patients face an enormous number of disturbances every day and noise is a common source of patient dissatisfaction. Since hospitals are now being ranked on patient satisfaction scores through the HCAHPS survey, there’s a new emphasis on using technology to reduce extraneous noise, for example by replacing overhead paging systems with a nurse call system that routes a request to a mobile phone. Patient monitoring devices can also be designed to send an alert to a specific individual, rather than beeping and clanging in a patient room.

Patient Safety In Hospital

Patient safety practices have been defined as “those that reduce the risk of adverse events related to exposure to medical care across a range of diagnoses or conditions. This definition is concrete but quite incomplete, because so many practices have not been well studied with respect to their effectiveness in preventing or ameliorating harm. Practices considered to have sufficient evidence to include in the category of patient safety practices are as follows:

Many patient safety practices, such as use of simulators, bar coding, computerized physician order entry, and crew resource management, have been considered as possible strategies to avoid patient safety errors and improve health care processes; research has been exploring these areas, but their remains innumerable opportunities for further research. Review of evidence to date critical for the practice of nursing can be found in later chapters of this Handbook.

The origins of the patient safety problem are classified in terms of type (error), communication (failures between patient or patient proxy and practitioners, practitioner and nonmedical staff, or among practitioners), patient management (improper delegation, failure in tracking, wrong referral, or wrong use of resources), and clinical performance (before, during, and after intervention).

Nursing As the Key to Improving Through Patient Safety. Further, when we consider the key role of communication or communication lapses in the commission of error, the role of nursing as a prime communication link in all health care settings becomes evident.

Safety Measures in Hospital

Bed controls and safety

Ask your nurse how to use the bed controls. Never try to lower the bed’s side rails or climb over them. Keep your top two side rails up at all times. Ask for help to get out of bed and wear slippers or shoes with non-skid soles. Never use a bedside table or over bed stand for support; they may move. Be very careful in the bathroom; move slowly and use the grab bar. Don’t hesitate to call for help. Falls are the most common source of patient injuries, especially falls from or near the bed. Your physician will order activity based on your condition. Please check with your nurse before getting out of bed or sitting. Use your nurse call button to get help.

Dentures and Eyeglasses

Dentures and eyeglasses should be stored in the drawer of your bedside table. You are responsible for any personal items you bring to the hospital.

Fire Drills

Don’t become overly concerned when you hear the sound of a fire drill alarm. Stay where you are unless instructed otherwise by hospital personnel. Fire drills are routinely conducted on all three shifts.


Mon General is a non-smoking facility. Visitors and patients are not permitted to smoke or use tobacco products within the hospital or on hospital grounds.

Personal electronic appliances

Hospital safety regulations prohibit the use of your own television or video games in the hospital. Hospital personnel must perform electrical safety tests on any appliances you bring from home before you use them at Mon General. Please ask your nurse to call Facilities Management to check your personal appliances.

Prescription drugs and herbal supplements

If you were taking prescription drugs before your hospitalization and brought them with you, please show them to your nurse so he/she can record the information, and tell the doctor about your current prescriptions. Send your medications home with your family or friends after the nurse has reviewed them with you. Your physician will order the medications you need in the hospital, and our staff will give them to you.

If you have been taking any herbal products or dietary supplements, they may interact with medications your doctor may prescribe while you are in the hospital and when you go home. Let your physician and nurse know of any products you were taking at home.

In the Lap of Mother Nature


Beneath the clouds live the Earth-Mother from whom is derived the Water of Life, who at her bosom feeds plants, animals, and human.”

Truly said. These lines define our mother nature’s love for us. We are her children, she feeds us, care for us, but what are we doing for her in return? Destroying her……

  • How does this affect you?

The environment you live in affects your mental, physical and social soundness. Today you are living in a situation which is brimming with pain, diversions, dirtied environment, issues connected with work stress and so forth. This creates a disturbance of emotional wellness issues, social engagements and physical actions which have brought on soaring impacts on the anxiety level, death rate, and negativity.

Living close to nature helps you to be more sprightly and happy. Various studies have shown that if you live in a domain denied of foliage, your perspective towards life may become negative. You feel a positive vibe when you live in an environment having adequate greenery. The fantastic and invigorating feeling that you experience while strolling through woods, walking around a shoreline or climbing mountains affects you in many ways. Your psyche, soul, and the body are revivified as all the sensations are occupied in by the beautifulness of nature, warm and alleviating daylight and the soothing environment. The Green color you see in nature is itself considered to be appealing and aides in calming your brain and feelings. It positively affects you by lowering aggressiveness and feeling of depression.

Being near nature helps us to handle the strain, pressure, and dissatisfaction that we confront in our everyday lives.

Laborers who work in an ambiance having a view of landscape or greenery tend to discover their jobs less upsetting than those individuals who work in close spaces under manufactured lighting. They handle the pressure of work environment proficiently and are additionally better at settling on reasonable choices.

Aside from this, there are different advantages of living near natural force. It has numerous medical advantages which enhance your life, consciousness, performance, and state of mind. It can revive your dull life by impelling a feeling of prosperity.

  • Connecting people

Individuals who live close to green habitat have a strong sense of oneness, are more supportive and concerning in times of pain. This further enhances the feeling of acceptance and harmony in the clique which results in lower violations which incorporate abusive behavior at home, street crimes, and burglary. The entire community profits by this.

  • Healthy living

Scientists have found a connection between the life span and your closeness to nature. The discoveries incorporate that respiratory and heart ailments were lower in individuals living in regions which have admittance to parks and were all the more physically occupied. Air quality of the zone which is loaded with vegetation is healthier and preferable over the area which has less number of trees or where trees are absent. This is on because green vegetation helps in engrossing poisons which are radiated and scattered in the ecosystem by commercial enterprises and assembling plants, vehicles, family units and so on. They pull carbon mono-oxide, suspended particulate matter, ozone, and other poisonous contaminations out of the air into their leaves, along these lines shielding individuals from them. Cancercausing agents i.e. operators that cause different sorts of tumors in people are likewise consumed by them, in this way lessening odds of getting a disease. Territories like this are additionally rich in oxygen and taking deep breaths in such places makes you loaded with oxygen which enhances your blood flow, decreases odds of stroke, heart assault, asthma, bronchitis, coronary corridor illness, lung cancer and diabetes.

Daylight is a decent source of Vitamin D and it plays an essential part in the absorption of calcium. Lack of Vitamin D is connected with associated with risk of weight gain, mental issue, odds of getting malignancy and different other well being issues.

But in the present day time, we as have becomes laves to innovation. This has influenced the human intellectual working as the cerebrum is overstimulated which causes superfluous push and declines efficiency. Creativity is supported by individuals who live in green spaces. Investing energy far from battery gadgets like portable PCs, cell phones, and tablets helps in building up your imagination upto 50%. This aide in finding new and imaginative approaches to finish distinctive errands in everyday life. It additionally enhances the center and consideration levels in people.

Prior youngsters used to invest their greater part of energy outside in parks, tree houses, beaches, backwoods camps and so forth looking at the wide variety of colors. Sadly, today the vast majority spend their time inside playing computer games on T.V., PCs or on tablets under fake light. This increases the odds of creating myopia or partial blindness. Continually sitting before the screen prompts cerebral pains, joint torments, neck and back issues as well.

Some studies recommend that the astigmatism is significantly lessened in youngsters who spent no less than 2 hours a day outside.

Investing energy in nature supports the immune system as outside air helps the body to retain phytoncides which shield us from different sorts of bacterial and contagious contaminations. Kids who play outside have a superior resistance from diseases than that of the kids who invest a large portion of their time inside the house.

Taking an aftermeal stroll enhances the quality of sleep. Sound sleep builds viability and productivity of doing every day tasks. Open up windows everyday in the morning to let the fresh air enter your home. This will help in sprucing up the indoor environment clearing out the terrible smell and tainted air.

We are in a dire need to see how essential it is for us to preserve resources and shield our surroundings from further degradation.

 So, now let us join our hands together in unification and work towards making a superior living and supportable environment for ourselves and for our future generation!!!!

Don’t forget to comply with the above mentioned factors determined by Otherwise, you can chat with service experts through Mayifind mobile app and have a life-time experience in your favourite destination.

  • Contributed by Mukul Kukreti

Wondrous Spices


Three Wondrous Spices

Envision your food with no flavors. Unfathomable, is it? We can without much of a stretch put it along these lines; wherever you locate an Indian you will discover flavors. No big surprise, when big food companies from over the world come to India, they need to add an Indian turn to their menu. Right from the kitchen and medicinal uses in homes, spices have a vital part to play in better places. As India is honoured with a fluctuated atmosphere each of its state delivers some zest or the other. No wonder why they are utilized so widely as a part of Indian cuisine. In India as well as in some different nations spices are thought to be of awesome use.

Aside from including shading, flavor and taste, utilization of numerous spices give interminable medical advantages. Some of them might be a substitute for your expensive magnificence items and even meds. On account of the Arab and European wayfarers, whose commitments in spreading them from their place of starting point to whatever remains of the planet has enormously expand their utilization and notoriety everywhere throughout the world!

Here is a list of some of the spices:

  • Anise

The modest anise plant is local to Middle-East and Mediterranean district; presumably started on the fruitful fields of Nile delta in the Egypt.

Do you experience the ill effects of grasping stomach problems? Suffering from runny nose, cold and cough? The seeds include gently sweet and fragrant bundle with an unmistakable liquorice flavor. Their uncommon aroma is because of fundamental oil, anethole in them.

Take a couple tastes of anise seed blended in heated water and you feel better in a flash. These extraordinary sweet-smelling fiery seeds for sure are entirely well known for their culinary and restorative qualities.

Star anise is a zesty organic product, acquired from evergreen tree local to South-West China. It has comparative taste and suggest a flavor like that of anise seed. The seeds are inside the star shaped fruits. Both the seed and in addition natural product husks utilized as flavor as a part of cooking.

Benefits of anise

  1. The main essential volatile oil that gives the characteristic aromatic flavor to it is anethole. Other important compounds found in these seeds include p-anisaldehyde, anise alcohol, acetophenone, pinene, estragol and limonene.
  2. Oil extracted from the seeds has application in numerous conventional meds as stomachic, hostile to septic, against convulsive, carminative, digestive, expectorant, stimulant and tonic operator
  3. Intriguing anise flavor convey a portion of the vital plants determined compounds that are known to be against oxidant or anti-oxidants, sickness forestalling, and wellbeing advancing.
  4. The seeds are a great wellspring of numerous fundamental B-complex vitamins, for example, pyridoxine, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamine. Pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) escalates GABA neuro-concoction levels in the cerebrum.
  5. The fiery seeds are one of critical wellspring of minerals like iron, copper, potassium, manganese, calcium, zinc and magnesium. Potassium is an essential part of cell and body liquids that controls heart rate and pulse.
  6. The zest additionally contains great measures of hostile to oxidant vitamins, for example, Vitamin-C and Vitamin-A.
  • Bay leaf

The absolute most amazing medical advantages of bay leaves incorporate their capacity to detoxify the body, moderate the maturing procedure, speed wound mending, shield the body from bacterial diseases, oversee diabetes, enhance heart wellbeing, diminish irritation, ease respiratory issues, advance absorption, and keep certain sorts of tumor.

The employments of bay leaves including granulating the leaves into a zest to flavor soups and stews, yet the leaves are most generally included in full leaves form as an enhancing for certain Italian dishes and are then evacuated or utilized as a topping. Entire leaves are not usually consumed. There is not a broad scope of culinary applications for inlet leaves, in spite of the fact that concentrates of sound leaves have various therapeutic applications for topical application. It is likewise a prominent component of fragrant healing and home grown medicines for different skin and respiratory conditions. We should investigate the remarkable medical advantages of narrows clears out.

Benefits of Bay leaf

  1. Essential oil of bay leaf is massaged on sprained regions and for relieving headaches. The oil also provides relief from swellings, rheumatic and arthritic pain.
  2. Setting a fabric absorbed water in which cove leaves have been boiled gives alleviation from hack, chilly, bronchitis and mid-section contaminations.
  3. Prevents cancers. It has a combination of organic compounds namely linalool, phytonutrients, catechins and parthenolide. These all have anti-oxidant properties and acts as a destroyer of tumorous cells.
  4. Rutin and caffeic are both essential natural mixes found in bay leaf that significantly help heart well being. Rutin reinforces fine dividers in the heart and the body’s furthest points, while caffeic corrosive can take out LDL or bad cholesterol from the cardiovascular framework.
  5. Promotes hair growth. Helps in eliminating dandruff and dry skin by improving hair follicles.
  6. It has a natural calming quality which help in reducing stress hormones level in the human body. Bay leaf oil is often used in aromatherapy to promote health.
  • Cinnamon
  • Modern research indicates that cinnamon holds some beneficial health properties. Having said that, it is important to recognize that more evidence is needed before we can finally say that cinnamon has these health benefits.
  • Cinnamon has been consumed since 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt, where it was of high cost (almost considered to be a panacea). In medieval times doctors used cinnamon to treat conditions like coughing, arthritis and sore throats.

Benefits of Cinnamon

  1. It helps in improving lipid levels and also control glucose levels in the human body.
  2. Suppresses the LDL or “bad cholesterol” and “boosts HDL” consequently reducing the chances of getting strokes, heart attacks, coronary artery disease.
  3. Cinnamon also has anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal qualities.
  4. Used as a cure for stomach bugs such as salmonella, e-coli, adenovirus and campylobacter.
  5. It can be used as a food preservative in Asian countries. A pinch of cinnamon is used in almost every dish in India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan etc.
  6. Used as a relaxing agent in massage therapy.
  7. Essential oils derived from cinnamon are used for tooth decay, gum problems and bad breath.

Before choosing your favourite health care centers don’t forget to comply with the above mentioned factors determined by Otherwise, you can chat with service experts through Mayifind mobile app and have a life-time experience in your favourite destination.

  • Contributed by Mukul Kukreti